Kazakhstan – a grandeur of mountain peaks, sparkling glaciers, quiet forest twilight, mystery deserts, huge rocky canyons, emerald lakes, fast running rivers, poetry sunlight, and unique flora and fauna. It is a country of ancient civilization of the Eurasian continent, the home of the nomadic tribes, a solid piece of the Great Silk Road.

Kazakhstan is a large country with the area that is among the ten largest countries in the world. It owns part of the largest lake in the world – the Caspian Sea, part of the infamous Aral Sea and lake Balkhash. Together, it causes a variety of landscapes of rich natural wonders.


The difference with Moscow is +2 hours. There is no daylight savings time.


220 volts AC, 50 Hz

As of 2018, the population stood at 18.48 million people, ranking 63rd in the list of countries. The population is represented by more than 130 ethnic groups, each having their own cultural, linguistic, and historical specificity. See the chart to the right for the largest ethnic groups.


  • Kazakhs
  • Russian
  • Uzbeks
  • Ukranians
  • Germans
  • Tatars
  • Uyghurs
  • Koreans
  • Belarusians





Total Area

2,724,900 sq km
1,052,100 sq mi

Time Zone

UTC+5 / +6 (West / East)

Diverse People

Ancient Culture


Located in Central Asia, Kazakhstan has a total area of 2.72 million square km. The country shares it borders with Russia to the north and west, to the southeast is China, and to the south with Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. Its territory extends from the lower reaches of the Volga River in the west, to the foothills of the Altai Mountains in the east, and from the West Siberian lowlands in the north to the Kyzyl Kum Desert to the south.

More than 3/4 of the country of Kazakhstan are plains with altitudes ranging from 100 to 300 m (328-984 ft) above sea level. In the extreme east and southeast stretches the Altai Dzhungar and Tian Shan with elevations ranging from 3000 to 6995 m (9,842-22,949 ft – the peak of Khan Tengri). In the far west is the Caspian lowland, partly lying below sea level. In the center of the country’s vast territory is the destroyed mountain system Kazakh Hills.


Kazakhstan has an ‘extreme’ continental climate, with warm summers and very cold winters. Indeed, Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar. Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions, the winter being particularly dry.

The remoteness of Kazakhstan from oceans and its large area affects climate conditions. The average January temperature range from -19  to -4 °C (-2 to 25 °F) with an average July temperature ranging from 19 to 26 °C (66 to 79 °F).

Mountainous regions of southeast Kazakhstan, up to 1000 m ( 3,281 ft), daytime air temperatures in summer months can reach 30 °C (86 °F), while night time temps can drop to 18 °C (64 °F). Average day temps in winter usually hover around -10 °C (14 °F) and can cool to -20 °C (-4 °F) at night.

In the north, precipitation can average up to 300 mm (12 in) while deserts can receive less than 100 mm (4 in) and the mountains up to 1600 mm (63 in) on a yearly basis. Snow typically begins to fall in November with mountain passes closed until April. Summer rains are often associated with severe thunderstorms, which sometimes lead to flash flooding.


While the official language is Kazakh, roughly 90% of the population is proficient in Russian. Russian is typically spoken by the population in all of the major cities of Kazakhstan.


Kazakhstan is considered a poly-confessional country, where more than 3,000 religious associations representing 40 denominations can be found in over 2,500 places of worship. All of the world’s major religions can be found in Kazakhstan.


The monetary unit of Kazakhstan is the Tenge (Designation: International – KZT; Domestic – T). Banknotes and coins in circulation are in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000. Tenge is the only legal tender in the country. US dollars can be easily exchanged for Tenge, while the Euro is taken in almost all banks and exchange offices. Most banks only take new sample notes. Kazakhstan also accepts European and International credit cards, which are easily accepted in major hotels, shops and restaurants. ATM’s can be found in banks, hotels and shopping centers.


New Year – January 1-2
International Women’s Day – March 8
Nauryz – March 21-23
Feast of unity of the people of Kazakhstan – May 1
Victory Day – May 9
Capital Day – July 6
Constitution Day of the Republic of Kazakhstan – August 30
Day of first President – December 1
Independence Day – December 17


Most often in major hotels and restaurants, gratuity for the service is already included in the bill. Usually it is 5-15%. If such amount is not included with the total, you can include a tip. There is also a fixed amount for the service in the taxi and rail transport.


Foreign Citizens and those without citizenship need to obtain a visa for entrance into the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Citizens of Russia, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, and Moldova do not need a visa to visit Kazakhstan, only a foreign passport. Entrance documents are stamped in the airport or other control centers. Foreign citizens can receive visa support before entering Kazakhstan. Validity of passport should not expire earlier than three months after expiration.


The name “Kazakh” comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, “to wander”, reflecting the Kazakhs’ nomadic culture. The name “Cossack” is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means “land” or “place of”, so Kazakhstan can be literally translated as “land of the wanderers”.


Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region’s climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle. The Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe that humans first domesticated the horse in the region’s vast steppes.


Kazakhstan has the largest and strongest performing economy in Central Asia. Supported by rising oil output and prices, Kazakhstan’s economy grew at an average of 8% per year until 2013, before suffering a slowdown in 2014 and 2015. Kazakhstan was the first former Soviet Republic to repay all of its debt to the International Monetary Fund, 7 years ahead of schedule.